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Category: Business, Corporate

Voting Trusts, Corporations

A “voting trust” is an agreement where one or more shareholders appoints a trustee to vote on behalf of the shareholders at a corporate meeting. It is in effect a more nuanced proxy arrangements (a proxy is usually legally authorized to vote on another person’s behalf). The principle difference is that a voting trust document […]

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Special Damages versus General Damages

“Damages” refers to the amount of money a plaintiff may be entitled to as a result of some civil wrong committed by a defendant (e.g., breach of contract, breach of trust, trespass, personal injury, etc.). “General damages” are those that flow as a natural and necessary result of the act complained of, whereas “special damages” […]

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Interference with Contract versus Interference with Business Relations

Tortious interference with a contract or business expectancy requires (1) a contract or valid business expectancy, (2) defendant’s knowledge of the contract or relationship, (3) a breach induced or caused by defendant’s intentional interference, (4) absence of justification and (5) damages. Bishop & Assocs., LLC v. Ameren Corp., 520 S.W.3d 463, 472 (Mo. 2017).  Whie not […]

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Credible Evidence

It is difficult to overstate the significant of credible evidence in Court. Even if you have undisputed evidence, you can still lose on a claim if the judge or jury simply does not find it credible or believable. Therefore, there are two components to proving a claim or contention: (1) the burden to produce evidence and […]

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Unjust Enrichment Claims When a Contract Exists

To win on a claim for unjust enrichment, a plaintiff needs to demonstrate that (1) the defendant was enriched by the receipt of a benefit, (2) the enrichment was at the expense of the plaintiff and (3) that it would be unjust to allow the defendant to retain the benefit. Damon v. City of Kansas City, […]

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Cumulative Evidence

For something to be admissible as evidence, it must be legally relevant. To be “legally relevant,” its probative value or usefulness must not be outweighed by its costs, including the dangers of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, misleading the jury, undue delay, waste of time, or the needless presentation of cumulative evidence. Kroeger-Eberhart v. Eberhart, […]

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Corporate Director/Officer, Limited Liability Company Manager Liability

Corporate officers and directors, as well as managers of limited liability companies (LLC), are generally protected from discretionary business decisions. Inevitably, when a suit is filed by a shareholder of a corporation or member of a LLC , the director, officer or manager will assert the business judgment rule as a defense to the lawsuit.  […]

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Arbitration Waivers

Aribtration clauses are becoming increasingly common as a way to more expeditiously resolve disputes that can arise between parties to a contract. With an arbitration, a neutral, third-party arbitrator decides the case, as opposed to a judge or a jury. Many disputes can arise with respect to the enforceability of an arbitration provision (e.g., unconscionability, […]

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Lost Stock Certificates, Corporate Ownership

Stock certifciates are the legal documents which demonstrate that you own some or all of a corporation. While there is no technical requirement for how they are to appear, they often look similar to an automobile certificate of title. What happens when you lose them? How can you demonstrate and prove that you have an […]

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Civil Conspiracy, Corporations, Independent Personal Stakes

To make a claim for civil conspiracy in Missouri, you must show that there are (1) two or more persons, (2) an unlawful objective, (3) a meeting of the minds, (4) at least one act in furtherance of the conspiracy and (5) injury to Plaintiff. Phelps v. Bross, 73 S.W.3d 651, 657 (Mo. Ct. App. 2002). […]

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